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2015 School of Sport and Exercise Science Research Students
Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science - Third Year


Holly McLean
Project Title: Correlations between isokinetic muscular strength of the lower limb and 4-km cycle time trial performance in triathletes.

The cycle stage of an Olympic distance triathlon is characterised by short bouts of high intensity cycling, especially during the initial stages, with high power output correlating with overall cycle performance. Previous reports suggest that chronic cycle training may change the muscle mechanics within the leg muscles. Considering the triathlete spends time training in both shortened (cycle) and lengthened (run) muscular conditions, adaptations to chronic training may be quite different to pure cyclists; however no studies have used triathletes as participants. Furthermore, studies have failed to establish a relationship between strength measures and cycling performance (40 km & 30 km). This could be explained by the differing muscle strength required for the tests, maximal vs endurance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensors and knee flexors with 4-km cycling performance of triathletes, and at which angle this peak torque occurred. Additionally, limb asymmetry and hamstring to quadriceps ratio were also assessed. Six male triathletes who had been training for a minimum of 12 months prior to the commencement of the study volunteered to participate in the study. Participants completed an isokinetic leg extension / flexion test performed at angular velocities of 180˚.s-1 and 60˚.s-1, as well as a 4-km cycle time trial. The highest peak torque produced at 60˚.s-1 was used for correlations between cycle time. Results found that cycle time was strongly correlated to extensor and flexor peak torque at 60˚.s-1 for dominant (r = -0.85 & r = -0.63), and non-dominant limbs, (r = -0.78 & r = -0.78), respectively. Limb asymmetry was larger for both the extensors and flexors at 60˚.s-1 (10 % & 17%) compared to 180˚.s-1 (8% & 10%). The hamstring to quadriceps ratio was smaller for both dominant and non-dominant limbs at 60˚.s-1 (0.51 & 0.54) compared to 180˚.s-1 (0.70 &0.81). It is concluded that a strong relationship exists between isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensors and flexors at an angular velocity of 60˚.s-1, and 4-km cycle time, for triathletes. Furthermore, angular velocity influences muscle strength balance, with triathletes possessing better hamstring to quadriceps ratio and limb symmetry at a higher angular velocity.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder


Zoe Neureuter
Project Title: Energy Availability of Female Adolescent Team Sport Athletes.

An athlete’s dietary intake plays a critical role in supporting their health, training, and daily activity. The female adolescent athlete has been identified as a cohort potentially at risk of lower than adequate dietary intake. Measuring the energy intake (EA) of these athletes allows us to assess if adequate energy remains after exercise to maintain all of the body’s physiological functions. EA is defined as energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure relative to fat free mass. Low EA (<125 kJ.kg FFM) is recognised as the underlying factor in a broad syndrome of health and performance related problems. A primary concern to the female athlete is the detrimental effect of low EA to menstrual function and bone health. Research to date has focused on those athletes and sports known to be at risk of low EA. There is a paucity of research on the female team sport athlete. However, findings indicate a prevalence of low EA occurring in this cohort. This study aimed to determine if the energy availability of female adolescent team sport athletes was adequate to support their health, growth, training, and daily activity. Twenty participants aged 14-18 years from a range of sports were studied over a three-day period. These participants were in the mid-season phase of their sport/s. Energy intake (food record diaries), exercise energy expenditure (accelerometers), and fat free mass were measured. Of the 20 participants, 5 displayed low EA (<125kJ.kg FFM), 12 were in the suboptimal range of EA (125-188kJ.kg FFM), and 3 displayed optimal EA (≥188kJ.kg FFM). Mean EA was 150 kJ.kg FFM. Results showed a very strong correlation between energy availability and energy intake r (20)=0.967, p=<0.01. This cross sectional study identified that the majority of the athletes were in an energy deficient state, with a quarter of the participants below the threshold established for low EA. This suggests that for those athletes below the threshold, their dietary energy intake is inadequate to optimally support their health, growth, training, and daily activity. Repeated measures of EA are required across the sporting season to accurately determine if the EA of these athletes is increasing, decreasing, or in a stable state. In conjunction with repeated measures of EA, validated screening questionnaires need to be included to determine menstrual function, bone stress fracture history, and eating attitudes. These strategies will aid in implementing appropriate treatment and educational programs for female adolescent team sport athletes. 
Supervisor: Lillian Morton

Alanah Parker
Project Title: The effect of hypermobility on joint position sense in female artistic gymnasts.

This study investigated joint position sense in a hypermobile and tight group of gymnasts, to determine if hypermobile gymnasts are at greater risk of injury due to a diminished joint position sense. Thirteen female artistic gymnasts, seven hypermobile and six tight, with a mean age of 10.5 ± 1.66 participated in this study. Joint position sense was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer to determine the error rates between pre-determined angles and reproduced angles, when vision was removed. An independent sample T-test was performed to compare the error rates produced by the hypermobile and tight groups. A factorial Anova was used to group the errors into above and below the pre-determined angle in both groups. No significant difference (< 0.05) was evident between the error rates produced by the hypermobile and tight groups, however hypermobile did produce greater error both above (0.21˚) and below (0.92˚) the pre-determined angles. The findings demonstrated that hypermobile gymnasts reproduced angles with greater error both above and below the pre-determined angle, when compared to tight gymnasts, however these results were not significant. Joint position sense appeared to be diminished in both the hypermobile and tight group of gymnasts, indicating that body awareness is undeveloped in this group of gymnasts and proprioceptive training may be of value. 
Supervisor: Stephen Burden

Rinaldy Akbar
Project Title: The Effect of 6 Weeks of Rope-Jump Training on Core Strength and Endurance, Leg Power, Running Speed, Agility, and Ball Skills in Football Players.

In football, there are many things that can determine the outcome of a match. Players’ fitness level, such as their strength, endurance, speed and agility could determine which team wins or loses. Rope-jump training has been proven to be able to improve these fitness components. The purpose of this study is to find out whether rope-jump training can improve football players’ core strength and endurance, speed and agility. This study will also look at how rope-jump training can affect football related activity such jumping and dribbling. 20 football players took part in this study. They were divided into an experimental group and a control group. Both groups conducted a pre-test and a post-test. The experimental group then performed 6 weeks of rope-jump training, 2 times a week during football training, while the control group performed normal training session. The 6 weeks of rope-jump training significantly improved running speed by 5% in the experimental group and 1.99% in the control group. Dribbling speed also improved by 8.3% in the experimental group and 5.5% in the control group. There was also an improvement of 2.88% for the experimental group and 1.9% for the control group in agility. Abdominal strength and endurance also improved. There were small improvements in leg power and upper body strength and endurance. In conclusion, rope-jump training can help to improve speed and agility. However, it has small effect on leg power and upper body strength and endurance. 
Supervisor: Dr Glynis Longhurst

Daniel Moore 
Project Title: What effect does strength and power training have on speed, agility, vertical jump and aerobic capacity of footballers".

During a match, footballers are required to frequently display lower limb power, completing explosive actions including jumping and sprinting on average every 70 seconds. In addition, footballers require a high level of aerobic fitness, running 10-12km at high intensity during a match. Research suggests that footballers when compared to other major professional sports are lacking lower limb power. Strength and power training has been shown to improve conditioning for lower limb power, specifically in terms of jumping ability, speed and agility. This study sought to determine the impact of strength and power training in football players in terms of speed, vertical jump, agility, while considering if any impact on VO2max exists. 19 adult male competitive footballers (aged 18-26) were selected to complete a training study examining the effect that strength and power training can have on speed, agility, vertical jump and VO2max. The participants where split into two groups, a Control group (CON) and Intervention group (INT). The INT group completed two strength and power training sessions per week over six weeks. Results of the study were: Vertical jump improved by 9.01% for the INT group, and 0.85% for the CON group. 30m sprint time improved by 2.98% for the INT group, 0.53% for the CON group, 505 agility improved 1.92% for the INT group and 0.62% for the CON group, VO2max improved by 1.44% for the INT group and 1.93% for the CON group. Changes in speed and agility were positive but not significant. Changes in VO2max where more positive for the Control group in relation to the Intervention group, the difference was not significant. The research concludes that vertical jump performance can be improved significantly with no detrimental impacts to VO2max, agility and speed. The research suggests that football coaches should implement strength and power training programs in addition to current training methods. This should produce significant improvements in vertical jump performance, with potentially positive improvements observed in speed and agility. 
Supervisor: Marrin Haggie

Postgraduate

Jodie Collins
Project Title: Resistance training and co-supplementation with creatine and protein in older subjects with frailty: a small-scale exploratory study.

This is a small-scale exploratory trial from the Pro-Elderly study (“Protein Intake and Resistance Training in Aging”) aimed at gathering knowledge on the feasibility, efficacy and safety of co-supplementation with creatine and protein supplementation, in conjunction with resistance training, in older individuals with frailty. Methods: A 14-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo controlled exploratory trial was conducted between in Hamilton (New Zealand). The subjects were randomly assigned to compose either one of the following groups: 1) whey protein and creatine co-supplementation (WHEY+CR) or 2) whey protein supplementation (WHEY). All the subjects undertook a supervised exercise training program for 14 weeks and were assessed at baseline and after 14 weeks. The main dependent variables were muscle function (handgrip, timed-stands and timed-up-and go tests) and body composition (free fat mass, fat mass, and bone mass). Self-reported adverse events were recorded throughout the trial and blood parameters were assessed. Results: We found a main time-effect in handgrip (WHEY+CR = 26.65 ± 31.29; WHEY = 13.84 ± 14.93 Kg; p = 0.0005), timed-up-and-go (WHEY+CR = 11.20 ± 9.37; WHEY = -17.76 ± 21.74; p = 0.006 s), and timed-stands-test (WHEY+CR = 47.50 ± 35.54; WHEY = 46.87 ± 24.23 reps; p = 0.0001), suggesting that WHEY+CR and WHEY were similarly effective in improving muscle function. Exploratory analyses further suggested that most of the subjects experienced improvements in all muscle function tests. In addition, all of the subjects showed improvements in at least two of the three tests, regardless of their treatments. Neither within- nor between-group differences were detected in any of the body composition variables (all p > 0.05). No important adverse effect was observed and blood parameters remained unaltered. Conclusion: Co-supplementation with creatine and whey protein was tolerable and free of adverse events in older subjects with frailty undertaking resistance training. Furthermore creatine supplementation did not augment the adaptive effects of resistance training along with whey protein on body composition or muscle function in this population. 
Supervisor: Prof Bruno Gualano and Dr Glynis Longhurst

2013 School of Sport and Exercise Science Research Students

Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science - Third Year

Janelle Darlington
Project Title: Physical Activity Patterns in Chidren and Adolescents

Supervisor: Lillian Morton
View research poster

Josiah O’Connell
Project Title: The post activation potentiation effects after a heavy sled push on sprint performance.

Project Summary: This study will investigate the effects of post activation potentiation (PAP) on sprint performance. PAP involves completing a near maximal contraction such as a 3 rep max squat followed by a short rest interval and then a maximal effort activity, resulting in the activity being momentarily enhanced due to PAP. Previous investigations have utilised contractions that promote primarily vertical forces such as squats, drop jumps and counter movement jumps however It is believed that the production of large horizontal forces during sprinting are of greater importance than the production of vertical forces, thus it seems likely that a pre-conditioning contraction that promotes predominantly horizontal forces will induce a large post activation potentiation response. Therefore, the aim of this study will be to investigate the effects of post activation potentiation on sprint performance whilst utilising a pre conditioning contraction that promotes primarily horizontal forces. The study will utilise a time series design, where participants will act as their own controls. The performance element will be measured as 10m sprint time. Participants will complete three maximum effort 10m sprints from which an average baseline measure will be calculated. After a recovery period, participants will complete a maximal effort heavy sled push over 5m with a load equivalent to the individual’s body mass followed by a passive rest interval of 9 minutes, finishing with a single10 meter maximum effort sprint.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder

Josh Stirling
Project Title: Is the false step start position beneficial for enhancing sprint performance?

Project Summary: A false step to initiate forward movement has been proven to increase force production and provide a faster time compared to parallel and split stance start positions. Previous studies investigating the effects of start position on sprint performance have only assessed horizontal and vertical force production, impulse and time over distances of 2.5, 5, and 10m. However research regarding the reaction time and movement time of the start positions has yet to be investigated. Quantification of movement time is quite important in the sporting world because the start position that takes less time to complete whilst resulting in a faster time over short distances will be beneficial for an athlete’s sprint performance. The purpose of this study will be to quantify the movement times of the start positions to allow for better understanding of the differences between starting positions. Twelve male participants will be recruited to participate in the study. Participants will perform three 5m maximal sprint efforts from the three starting positions (false step, parallel stance, split stance). A high speed camera will capture the movement time which will be measured from the starting stimulus to initiate movement until the final ground contact of the push off foot.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder

Genelle Vanderschantz
Project Title: The effects of an acute bout of bungee-cord towing on the kinetics of sprinting.

Project Summary: The aim of this study is to determine how an acute bungee cord intervention alters the kinetics of sprinting.  At least 10 male team sport athletes will be required to volunteer to take part for a pre-post single group research design to be conducted.  Each participant will complete a total of six successful, maximal five metre sprint trials (three unassisted and three assisted (bungee)) with sprint performance data being measured through the use of a SpeedLight V2 wireless timing light system and ground reaction force (GRF) data being obtained through the use of a Kistler force plate and accompanying Bioware software.  The following are the variables of interest for this study: horizontal sprint velocity, relative vertical impulse, relative horizontal impulse, relative braking impulse, and relative propulsive impulse.  Due to the lack of current literature regarding the kinetic effects of assisted sprint modalities on sprint performance this study aims to help make better links to the potential kinetic adaptations which may be occurring as a result of assisted sprint training.  If links can be made between the kinetic and kinematic changes which arise from assisted sprint training it may help practitioner’s better programme for their athletes and elicit the optimal relationship between stride length and stride rate therefore maximising horizontal sprint velocity.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder

Postgraduate

Josh Trewin
Programme: Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science (Honours) 
Project Title: The effect of directional plyometric training on sprint performance.

Project Summary: Plyometric training uses a series of jumps to improve the speed of force production of muscle. It has been used effectively by a number of researchers, with exercises in both horizontal and vertical directions, to improve sprint performances over varying distances. However, the mechanical adaptations to plyometric training are still unknown. Therefore this study will seek to fill this knowledge gap by assessing ground reaction forces, particularly impulse (force x time), following six (6) weeks of directional displacement plyometric training. Twenty four (24) participants will be recruited from a local amateur football club and testing will occur during TWO 30 minute sessions, pre and post plyometric training. Sprint performance will be measured via 10m sprint time and also ground reaction forces collected 4m from the starting position. Following the first testing session, the participants will be evenly allocated to either the horizontal or vertical displacement plyometric training group where they will be required to attend 2 x 20minute sessions per week for six weeks (12 sessions total). Training groups will be equated by volume and intensity with the same exercises and number of ground contacts performed by all participants.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder
Co-Supervisor: Jamie Denton

Brad Mayo
Programme: Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science (Honours) 
Project Title: A comparison of locomotive requirements between professional and semi-professional rugby union players: A pilot investigation.

Project Summary: Rugby union is played throughout the world by 92 international unions affiliated with the International Rugby Board. Rugby is played over two 40 minute halves separated by a break of no longer than 10 minutes. The game involves two teams of fifteen players made up of two positional groups consisting of eight forwards and seven backs. According to the IRB there are now over 3.5 million men, women and children playing the game worldwide across varying levels. However, there is a gap that exists when comparing professional and semi-professional rugby player’s locomotive requirements. Until recently few studies have comprehensively measured the locomotive requirements of varying levels of performance. GPS has been used to detect fatigue (training and competition), identify periods of intensity, various activity profiles and physical capacity between positions, competition level and sport. Furthermore, metrics such as total distance (meters), maximum running speed (km/h) and meters per minute (m-min) can be recorded via the use of GPS and will be analysed in this study. For this study 30 data sets collected from 15 games (8 Super & 7 ITM Cup) during the 2012 seasons will be examined. Such information is important as it could aid in player progression from semi-professional to professional level. Therefore the purpose of this study will be to compare the locomotive requirements between professional and semi-professional rugby players during the 2012 season. Participants will complete a laboratory based VO2 max test which will directly measure oxygen consumption. Each participant will also complete two field tests using a sport specific version of a Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance test.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder
Co-Supervisor: Shaun Paterson
View research poster

2012 School of Sport and Exercise Science Research Students
Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science - Third Year

Josh Trewin
Project Title: The relationship between ballistic peak power and a functional netball chest pass.

Project Summary: Power can be defined as the amount of work performed by muscle with respect to time. Power is widely known as highly important to many sporting tasks. With respect to netball there is minimal literature relating to the chest pass skill and power. Literature has assessed the power of female netball players at a single load finding a very large correlation to the chest pass. However this load was very low. This research will seek to fill a gap by assessing power at different loads of the one repetition maximum (1RM) of each participant. The purpose of this study will be to assess the relationship between ballistic peak power at two loads (bench press throw at 30 and 60% of 1RM) and a functional chest pass test (seated chest pass for distance). 20 elite female netball players from a Netball Waikato training squad will be invited to participate. Testing will occur during ONE 90minute session. Participants will complete 1RM testing, power assessment and the functional test during this session.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder

Postgraduate

Leah Hutching
Programme: Master of Science (Sport and Exercise Science)
Project Title: A Biomechanical Comparison of the Foot Strike between Running in Vibram Fivefingers® Shoes and Barefoot

Project Summary: Running is a popular physical activity and has many health benefits.  Such a fundamental activity requires a person to cope with a vertical force that is 2-3 times their body weight during each step, thus for a runner that exceeds 30km per week it is plausible that they will complete a minimum of 25000 steps and exceed a total load of 60000 body weights of force. It is speculated that the repeated nature of these high loading rates accounts for the high rate (~50%) of running-related injuries especially in distance runners that exceed 30km per week.  Stress fractures in the lower limbs account for 20% of running injuries reported. The tibia (bone in the lower limb) has been reported to be highly susceptible to stress fractures, accounting for 55% of lower limb stress fractures. It may take weeks to recover from the injury which can hinder a runner's training regime and competition schedule. Injury may occur the moment the foot touches the ground therefore, it is important that the runner absorbs the vertical force through bending at the lower extremity joints during this time. Tibial stress injuries are likely to develop according to poor training regimes e.g. increasing the training load too soon which limits the opportunity for the body to adapt appropriately. Intrinsic factors such as high force loading rates lead by excessive foot flattening have also been associated with tibial stress injury development.  Modern (running) footwear design can acutely alleviate the severity of these intrinsic factors but may impair long-term foot health. Barefoot running is a training method that could potentially reduce such injury as it promotes a more variable form of training.  Variable training loads the musculoskeletal system while allowing a sufficient recovery period for the body to adapt and become stronger. However during barefoot running the plantar surface of the foot may be exposed to excessive surface temperatures which could harm the skin. Therefore a minimal shoe (Vibram Fivefingers) which is promoted to simulate that of a barefoot maybe a more appropriate form of footwear to run in. The present study will acutely compare the mechanics of barefoot and minimal shoe running during the initial touchdown of the foot at different velocities.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder
Co-Supervisor: Stephen Burden


Marrin Haggie
Programme: Master of Science (Sport and Exercise Science)
Project Title: The Validity and Reliability of a Sport Specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test in Predicting Maximal Oxygen Consumption in Sub Elite Level Rugby League Players.

Project Summary: Aerobic fitness is an integral part of a rugby league player's athletic performance. Although, direct maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) measurement is considered the gold standard of aerobic fitness testing, it is complex, time consuming, expensive and generally inaccessible to many amateur and sub-elite teams and athletes.  Currently there are a number of field tests that predict aerobic fitness with very high validity and reliability correlations.  However, there are currently no documented cases of sport specific field tests to predict aerobic fitness for rugby league players.
This study involves testing a group of sub-elite representative rugby league players.  The aims of the study are to a) measure the validity of a sport specific field test as compared to a gold standard criterion measure, and b) determine the reliability of the sport specific field test to reproduce results on repetition of the test.
Participants will complete a laboratory based VO2 max test which will directly measure oxygen consumption. Each participant will also complete two field tests using a sport specific version of a Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance test.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder
Co-Supervisor: Jamie Denton

Todd Barker
Programme: Post Graduate Diploma in Sport and Exercise Science
Project Title: How effective is the jackal technique of the breakdown in elite rugby union matches?

Project Summary: An evaluation of pool play during the New Zealand 2012 ITM Cup Premiership domestic Rugby Union competition was conducted to establish how effective the jackal technique at the breakdown is at changing possession from offense to defence.  Comparisons were made between the tackler and the first arriving defensive player (1st OOA) to the breakdown. Jackals were attempted at 42% of all defensive breakdowns with a 15% success rate. The 1st OOA played the most prominent role of Jackler through performing the jackal 68% of all jackal occurrences with a 14% success rate. But the tackler was the more effective player at turning over possession due to having a 21% success rate despite only attempting 17% of the total defensive jackals. The data presented provides us with evidence to assist in further research and to stimulate thought about coaching strategies to assist in improving the Jackal’s success rates to further improve team’s opportunities to go from defence into an offensive attacking opportunity.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder

2011 School of Sport and Exercise Science Research Students
Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science - Third Year

Vance Elliot
Project Title: The effect hip range of motion has on lineout throw accuracy.

Project Summary: The lineout is the restarting phase in a rugby union game. It is the primary phase of gaining possession and in the 2003 rugby world cup; teams regained 86% of their own lineout's and 26% of lineout's resulted in a try. Anecdotally it has been stated that traditionally the lineout throw consists of power generation from the upper extremity, which will create a velocity/ accuracy trade-off which means that the increased velocity that is needed to throw to further distances will create a decrease in accuracy. Limited empirical evidence is available in the literature on lineout throwing. Only one study by has investigated the kinematics of a lineout throw (Trewartha, et al. 2008). The results indicated increased joint angle magnitudes in the upper extremity resulting in a decrease in accuracy. In contrast when the lower body showed increases in magnitude and the upper body showed similar or little change in magnitude accuracy was shown to be increased. Literature has not clearly investigated technical variations in lineout throwers, nor has a lineout throw technique been identified which will be more beneficial to a lineout thrower's performance. Therefore, this study will investigate a technique which will use the lower extremity as the main power source, which will be transferred through the kinematic chain and accelerate the ball. This technique will theoretically allow optimal velocity of the upper torso to be created so that more control is gained and therefore accuracy increases.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder

Postgraduate

Leah Hutching
Programme: Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science (Honours)
Project Title: Kinetic comparison of barefoot and shod change of direction performance.

Project Summary: Sports footwear has been considered as one of the most important aspects in minimizing injury risks and promoting optimal performance.  The biomechanical evidence has suggested that running with shods (shoes) adversely affects an athlete’s locomotion mechanics.  In many sports, successful performance is determined by the execution of dynamical movement patterns such as rapid multidirectional sprints.  These movements can involve high injury rates especially in the ankle when an athlete is deficient in maintaining their stability.  Therefore executing these movements without shods could possibly decrease injury risks as barefoot running is proposed to enhance dynamic and static stability.  It is speculated that the minimal support for the feet strengthens the surrounding muscles and increases proprioception contributing to reducing injury.  The present study will acutely compare the ground reaction forces (kinetics) of barefoot and shod change of direction performance
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder
Co-Supervisor: Stephen Burden

Damien Puddle
Programme: Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science (Honours) 
Project Title: Ground Reaction Forces and Loading Rates Associated with Parkour Drop Landings from Varying Heights.

Project Summary: This project will study the ground reaction forces and loading rates involved in two types of drop landings - Parkour precision landing and Parkour roll landing (further explanation below) - from three varying heights (50%, 75% and 100% of the participants standing height) in an attempt to ascertain what Parkour landing technique is more suitably efficient for safe ground contact at varying degrees of height.
Traceurs will perform these landings from three different heights that will be specific to each traceur from an adjustable scaffolding platform onto an embedded force plate.
Supervisor: Dr. Peter Maulder

2010 School of Sport and Exercise Science Research Students
Bachelor of Sport and Exercise Science - Third Year

Damien Puddle
Project Title: Ground Reaction Forces Involved in Parkour and Traditional Drop Landing Techniques.

Project Summary: Born in France, Parkour is a relatively new physical discipline whereby Parkour practitioners (called traceurs) train to overcome obstacles in their path by adapting their movements to the given environment for the purpose of chase or escape. Typical Parkour movements involve running, climbing, jumping, vaulting and quadrupedal movement. Due to the relative infancy of Parkour there is a lack of literature surrounding it and thus no normative data in which to base specific technique instruction upon. This project will study the ground reaction forces involved in three types of drop landings - standard Parkour landing, Parkour roll landing and a traditional landing - in an attempt to ascertain whether the current prescribed Parkour landing techniques are suitably efficient for safe ground contact. 
Supervisor: Peter Maulder

Nathan Smith
Project Title: Athletes intake of carbohydrate drinks on perception of taste and performance.

Project Summary: Information not available.
Supervisor: Camila Nassif
Co-Supervisor: Andrea Braakhuis

Jonathon Hodgson
Project Title: Study of the knowledge Athletes and Coaches have on Sports drinks.

Project Summary: This study aims to gather information on what athletes and coaches know about sports drinks, where they get their information from and what their expectations are in regards to using these sports drinks.
Supervisor: Camila Nassif

Phillip Wilson
Project Title: The kinetic effect of weighted vests during the acceleration phase of sprint running.

Project Summary: Sprint acceleration is the key component in team sport game situations, thus improving athlete acceleration is a major concern to strength and conditioning practitioners. Acceleration performance is determined by kinetic variables such as increased horizontal and propulsion impulses. Manipulation of these variables through training is of interest. This study will examine the acute kinetic changes induced by using a weighted vest as a tool for sprint training. Foot contact kinetics during the acceleration phase of sprinting will be assessed to determine these changes. Kinetic sprint data, taken with and without resistance, will allow an understanding of the forces produced and how they are changed when resistance is applied.
Supervisor: Peter Maulder

Leah Hutching
Project Title: The effect of a weighted vest on the kinetics during a change of direction maneuver performed by Netballers.

Project Summary: Netball is one of the most popular female sports in the world. Success in such an athletic pursuit requires athletes to execute explosive change of direction (COD) movements numerous times. However these COD tasks involve large moments of force around the knee and ankle joints thus increasing the likelihood of injury. Resisted sprint training (RST) is one modality commonly used in the field to meet such requirements. RST can involve wearing a weighted vest with a load portion (5 to 30%) of the person’s body mass whilst performing the movement task. The study in question will investigate the acute biomechanical effects of wearing a weighted vest on the ground reaction forces (kinetics) during a 45 degree cut COD task.
Supervisor: Peter Maulder

Postgraduate

Frans Van Der Merwe (Masters Dissertation)
Project Title: Hypermobility and muscle reflex timing during a drop jump.

Project Summary: Information not available.
Supervisor: Stephen Burden

Sue Beale
Project Title: The effect of fasting on prolonged exercise performance in the heat.

Project Summary: The main objective of this study is to look at the effect of fasting on performance during exercise in the heat with the ingestion on carbohydrate beverages and its possible effects on results of previous studies.
Supervisor: Camila Nassif